主管人員的壓力管理

主管人員的壓力管理

楊惟婷整理

 

以宏觀的心來面對,凡人皆須壓力管理。不是只有上班族有壓力,沒上班的家庭主婦也有壓力!

尤其在組織結構和層級都很明確的大型企業中,主管階級工作人員的生理、心理壓力都普遍很高,而是否具有良好的抗壓性,也就成為主管級人員存活於組織內最大的挑戰。

 

一、主管人員的壓力管理是兼具「人格修養」和「管理風格」的修鍊

主管人員的工作中充滿了競爭與快節奏,因此他們所承受的心理壓力也絕非一般。一般高管最主要的壓力源是:

1、責任重大;

2、工作負荷特別大;

3、對於未來的不可掌控性,包括政府政策、未來的企業前景等;

4、工作內容特別複雜,層層面面,包括人際關係;

5、知識含量高,使得他們不停要更新知識。

長期處在白熱化競爭的氣氛中,會使主管人員心理極度緊張、苦悶和失望,致使情緒跌宕。當不堪忍受這種超負荷的精神壓力時,自己往往就不能把握自己而失去自控力。

 

尤其,不同層級的主管人員,又各自不同性質的壓力,所以必須不斷地學習。

例如低階主管的壓力主要來自組織任務的執行成效和工作量。是否能夠達成組織任務?如何分配工作量?執行策略是否恰當?以及人員配置的公平性是否能夠被職員所接受等等,都是低階主管所面臨的壓力來源。

而中階主管除了面臨組織任務執行成效的壓力之外,「管理」的技巧和「績效呈現」都是中階主管主要的壓力來源。一方面他們要求屬下達成工作任務;另一方面則必須面對高階主管的要求和監督。因此,這一上一下的局面造成中階主管面臨「三明治工作狀態」,成為組織中最具壓力的核心點。

尤其大部的中階主管都會面臨的另一個壓力來源是管理權責被架空,組織任務被掌握在高階主管手中,而執行責任落在低階主管和職員身上,中階主管形同虛設,導致個人價值和工作權利的降低。一旦適應困難,就容易誘發工作壓力或心理困擾。

 

另外,高階主管通常肩負組織存活的重責大任,組織的發展方向與經營模式的建立、經營成敗…等,都是高階主管的壓力源。簡單的法:企業有沒有賺錢,就是高階主管的主要壓力源。所以,「管理」和「組織成敗」是最可能造成高階主管壓力的原因。

 

主管人員長期處在壓力下,情緒或身體上容易出現不適。就生理上而言,有些人出現在免疫系統,有些人則以心血管疾病為主,也有人反應為皮膚、內臟、消化系統等問題。不過常見的是容易疲累、感冒…等等。就心理上而言,壓力會使人脾氣暴躁、沒耐性、不想工作、甚至情緒沮喪。有些人會出現失眠、睡眠紊亂的情形。

 

因此,主管人員的壓力管理,必須同時兼具「壓力調適技巧」、「人際溝通」、與「管理藝術」等方面。

1、「壓力調適技巧」指的是放鬆身體和心靈的各種策略,包括:呼吸放鬆法、漸進式放鬆法、運動或其他體能活動、還有提升「心理與靈性」的各種知識、甚至宗教寄託。

 

2、「人際溝通」指的是:如何與屬下和主管相處。如何協調職員的工作人際糾紛?

 

3、「管理藝術」指的是:何種管理模式能創造組織最大的績效?激勵員工士氣?

 

所以說,主管人員的壓力管理可以說是兼具「人格修養」和「管理風格」的大學問!

 

二、從簡易放鬆法入門

 

壓力是一個工作上、生活上很慣有的一種感覺,它是人生活中必然存在的一種感覺。適當的壓力可以提高一個人的工作動力,增加工作動機;過度的壓力會造成一個人的身體、心理負擔;然而完全沒有壓力的世界是窮極無聊、長期下來會使人萎靡不振,喪失生命的動力。因此,用一個正向的態度去面對壓力,把它當成挑戰。但是,也需要一個有效的方式,來管理壓力。

 

在這裡介紹幾種臨床上常用的簡易放鬆法,讓這群成受重大工作壓力的主管們,可以抽空利用幾分鐘的時間,減少壓力對身體造成的傷害。

 

(一)「淨化呼吸法」:

 

根據研究,人的換氣頻率在每分鐘6次左右的呼吸含氧率最高。因此建議可以利用5分鐘的時間,吸氣5秒後,再吐氣5秒。
練習「吸氣、吐氣」為一個單位,每單位10秒鐘,1分鐘進行6次,連續至少5分鐘。這個方法可以讓人神清氣爽,而且在生氣的時候特別好用,可以讓怒氣在短時間內降溫!

 

(二)漸進式肌肉放鬆:

 

漸進式肌肉放鬆技巧,效能與運動差不多,但可以在辦公室內、家裡、甚至路旁的小塊空間,就可以做。這個技巧對於肌肉常常酸痛的人也很有效,可以降低肌肉纖維的乳酸堆積,改善長期維持一個姿勢後導致的肌肉疼痛。
這個放鬆技巧剛開始練習時需要較長的時間,大約15分鐘左右,等到熟練之後,就可以有『立即放鬆』的功效。

 

它的原理是心理學上常用的「交互抑制法」,就像一個很簡單的反射作用,利用緊繃-鬆弛之間的交互轉換,讓個人體驗緊繃與放鬆時肌肉和身體的感覺之差異,並且在多次訓練之後增加對身體肌肉張力的敏感度,在一感覺到壓力造成的緊繃感時,馬上可以自己進行處理,不須等到一天下來累積許多壓力之後再處理,這樣做的效果是,不會在工作一天下來之後覺得身體很累、壓力很大。

 

漸進式肌肉放鬆的施行步驟如下:

(i)調息:腹式呼吸或深呼吸。讓心情平靜,注意力集中。

(ii)肌肉放鬆:主要是身體的大肌肉群,包括頭皮、臉部、頸部、背部、肩膀、雙手雙腿、胸部、腹部等。首先須將所要放鬆的肌肉部位緊繃起來,連續緊繃,一次比一次緊繃,維持約30秒之後,再放鬆下來,也是一次比一次放鬆,連續放鬆,維持約60秒。順序是從頭部開始,一個一個肌肉群接著做就可以了。假如有某一個部位特別痠痛可以多做一次,練習久了,就只要針對明顯不舒服的那個部位來做放鬆就可以了,不必要全身肌肉群都做。

(iii)調息:深呼吸,體驗全身放鬆的感覺,讓心情沉澱。

 

施作過程中,可以加入一點輕鬆的音樂,效果更佳!剛開始練習,建議每天有空的時候先做2次,之後一天1次,持續約一個星期。

 

(三)冥想:

有壓力的時候人常有的反應就是想要逃避,逃離那個令人不舒服和痛苦的環境。冥想就是一個很好的方法,讓人可以暫時逃開現實,卻又不怕失控!冥想其實只是一個原理,任何人都可以自行創造屬於自己的冥想世界!

 

原則上先找一個不受打擾的空間,選定一個適合的音樂,可以是簡單的、空靈的,或是有流水鳥叫聲的音樂,先調息呼吸,然後集中注意力在呼吸上。等到呼吸平順之後,就讓自己進入冥想世界。它可以是高山、森林,也可以是藍天白雲。你也可以創造一個景象,在那裡你會很舒服、很放鬆,也可以跟某個對你而言重要的人說說話,或是向一個智慧老人請教問題解決的方法等等。

 

壓力的抒解和調適都必須靠個人的努力,保持一個習慣,開放心靈,這樣才可以常保身心健康,過著愉悅的生活!
以上介紹的方法,假如沒有一個執行的原動力,是起不了作用的!因此,為了你自己、為了你愛的人,現在就開始去做吧!!

 

三、漸進式地提升個人的專業能力,追求自我成長

在職場上,面對長官的要求、部屬的表現、自我的檢核,各種壓力從四面八方湧來。除了心理上的焦躁不安;生理上也胃痛、頭疼,內外煎熬地像是無止盡的迴圈,看不見逃脫的出口。

 

你如何看待壓力,就決定了壓力將如何影響你。將壓力視為威脅,陷在消極負面的情緒中,只會癱瘓你的腦袋,看不見其他的可能。

卡內基訓練大中華區負責人黑幼龍先生認為,「使我們受苦的,往往不是情況本身,而是我們對於情況的想法。」

 

尤其年輕的部屬,由於工作、社會閱歷較淺,因此更加容易產生壓力,此時應該自我積極地練習如何克服壓力,在此過程中,也加速了個人能力的成長,勝任既有的工作職掌之後,隨之而來的便是職位上的提升。從另一個角度來看,有時候也可以適時地給予自己適當的壓力,來幫助自己成長。

 

從組織的角度來看,個人感受到的壓力強度,其實與個人專業能力、工作熟悉度有關。所以,即使壓力大到個人無法承受,也還有能力較強的主管可提供協助。

所以,壓力的產生與紓解,關鍵在漸進式地提升個人的專業能力,相對地,壓力便可遞減式地減輕了,這也代表一種改善與進步。瞭解此壓力的本質之後,在面臨壓力時,就不致慌了方寸、亂了手腳,也才不會被壓力壓垮。

 

職場人際網絡,是管理壓力最有力的支持網。尤其年輕的部屬,面對難解的問題、無能為力的困擾、複雜的心情,不需要自己一肩扛起,獨自面對。找尋長官、同事協助,一方面為情緒的抒解的尋找出口;一方面也可以從不同的角度提供建議或協助。

 

而各級主管則要瞭解部屬壓力的成因,藉以幫助部屬調適之外,同時也應該瞭解個別部屬的性格,以及幫助個人成長。

但遇到部屬前來尋求支援時,要能夠適度地拿捏協助部屬的方式與程度,藉以避免部分較消極的部屬養成只要一遇到壓力,便將之轉移給主管解決的習慣。

 

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